Effects of paraoxon on neuronal and lymphocytic cholinergic systems.Charoenying, T., Suriyo, T., Thiantanawat, A., C. Chaiyaroj, S., Parkpian, P., and Satayavivad, J.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31(1): 119-128.
The cholinergic system in lymphocytes is hypothesized to be a key target for neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs). The present study determined the comparative effects of paraoxon, the active metabolite of OP-parathion, which is detected in the human neuroblastoma line, SH-SY5Y, and leukemic T-lymphocytes, MOLT-3, in vitro. Paraoxon induced cytotoxic effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cells. Further, the paraoxon-induced modulatory effects were comparable despite different cell types, including over-expression of N-terminus acetylcholinesterase (N-AChE) protein, a marker of apoptosis, down-regulations of mRNA encoding M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), and induction in expression of c-Fos gene, an indication of certain mAChR subtype(s) activation. Furthermore, the non-selective cholinergic antagonist atropine partially attenuated the paraoxon-induced N-AChE and c-Fos activations in both types of cells. These results provide initial and additional information that OPs may similarly induce neuro- and immuno-toxic effects through mAChRs activation, and they underline the potential of using lymphocytes for assessing OPs-induced neurotoxicity.